Solving shoulder problems

The AnyBody Modeling System has been used to solve a range of problems related to shoulders: e.g. total shoulder arthroplasty implants, effects of rotator cuff tears, creating realistic loads on fracture fixation devices, and to answer many other questions related to shoulders.



  • Physiological loads for activities of daily living
  • Custom fracture fixation plate evaluation
  • Rotator cuff influence on joint stability
  • Reverse/anatomical shoulder prosthesis
  • Glenohumeral joint stability
  • Implant position influence on joint forces/stability
  • Effects of Prosthetic Mismatch and Subscapularis Tear on GH Contact
  • Subscapularis tear and COP displacement
  • Humeral head translations, contact area and center of pressure (COP)
  • Shoulder immobilization posture optimization following surgical repair of massive rotator cuff tears
  • Influence of proximal humerus medial offset on the destabilizing forces at the intact (healthy) shoulder
  • Influence of elevation plane and the friction coefficient on cuff tear arthropathy mechanics
  • Influence of humeral head geometry on cuff tear arthropathy mechanics in the context of a hemiarthroplasty.

The modeling approach typically used in this type of models can be found in the Implant behavior inside body – motion, forces, stability” section.


Example of input and output for a total shoulder arthroplasty model:


  • Implants CAD files (STL)
  • Implant positioning data
  • Bone CAD files (STL)
  • Anthropometrics data
  • Motion data


  • Implant contact forces (accounting for muscles)
  • Implant motion
  • Muscle and ligament forces
  • And much more

Contact us to learn more or to discuss how we could solve your problem


Schematic steps to create a force dependent shoulder model

  1. Reproduce the activity, e.g. arm abduction, using your own data or an existing AnyBody model
  2. Exclude the default engineering type of joint in the model
  3. Custom scale the related bones using built in morphing techniques
  4. Add ligaments in the joint
  5. Position the implant CAD files on the bones
  6. Set up contact force object between implants
  7. Specify which DOF in the model needs to be predicted by the force dependent analysis.
  8. Run the inverse dynamic model having the force dependent option enabled in the study.
  9. Evaluate the output: Motion of secondary DOF in shoulder joint, joint reaction forces, muscles, and ligament forces

Selected papers

  • Menze J, Leuthard L, Wirth B, Audigé L, De Pieri E, Gerber K, Ferguson SJ, (2023), “The effect of pathological shoulder rhythm on muscle and joint forces after reverse shoulder arthroplasty, a numerical analysis”. Clin. Biomech. , [ DOIWWW ]
  • Flores C, Celik H, Hoenecke H, D’Lima DD, (2022), “Subject-Specific Computational Modeling of Acromioclavicular and Coracoclavicular Ligaments”. J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., [ DOIWWW ]
  • Sins L, Tétreault P, Nuño N, Hagemeister N (2016), “Effects of Prosthetic Mismatch and Subscapularis Tear on Glenohumeral Contact Patterns in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Numerical Musculoskeletal Analysis“, J. Biomech. Eng., vol. 138. [DOI]
  • Marie C (2015), “Strength analysis of clavicle fracture fixation devices and fixation techniques using finite element analysis with musculoskeletal force input“, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., vol. 53, pp. 759-769. [DOI]
  • Hölscher T, Weber T, Lazarev I, Englert C, Dendorfer S (2016), “Influence of rotator cuff tears on glenohumeral stability during abduction tasks“, J. Orthop. Res., vol. 34, pp. 1628-1635. [DOI]
  • More papers on orthopedics