Solving Knee problems – motion, forces, stability

The AnyBody Modeling System has been used to solve a range of problems related to knees: ACL reconstruction, meniscus injuries, stability of TKR joint, knee osteoarthritis questions, loads for wear analysis, component malrotation analysis in TKR and to answer many other questions in relation to knee arthroplasty.



  • Anatomical ACL reconstruction
  • Natural Knee Kinematics
  • Mechanical and kinematic alignments in total knee arthroplasty
  • Physiological realistic loads for activities of daily living
  • Joint stability following arthroplasty
  • Subject-specific model
  • Gait alteration strategies for knee osteoarthritis
  • Menisci role in knee contact mechanics
  • Patient-specific wear prediction for artificial joint
  • Patellar tracking
  • In-vivo kinematics and contact tracking of total knee arthroplasty
  • Synthetic ligaments influence on knee stability

Examples of input and output for a total knee arthroplasty model:


  • Implants CAD files (STL)
  • Implant positioning data
  • Bone CAD files (STL)
  • Anthropometrics data
  • Motion data and ground reaction force


  • Implant secondary DOF motion
  • Implant contact forces (accounting for muscles)
  • Muscle and ligament forces
  • And much more

Contact us to learn more or to discuss how we could solve your problem

The steps to model this can be the following

  1. Reproduce the activity, e.g. walking, using your own data or an existing AnyBody model
  2. Exclude the default engineering type of joint in the model (e.g. revolute joint in the knee)
  3. Custom scale the related bones using built in morphing techniques
  4. Add ligaments in the joint
  5. Position the implant CAD files on the bones
  6. Set up contact force object between implants
  7. Specify which DOF in the model needs to be predicted by the force dependent analysis
  8. Run the inverse dynamic model having the force dependent option enabled in the study
  9. Evaluate the output: Motion of secondary DOF in knee joint, joint reaction forces, muscles, and ligament forces

Selected papers

  • Esrafilian A, Halonen KS, Dzialo CM, Mannisi M, Mononen ME, Tanska P, Woodburn J, Korhonen RK, Andersen MS, (2023), “Effects of gait modifications on tissue-level knee mechanics in individuals with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis: A proof-of-concept study towards personalized interventions”. J. Orthop. Res., [ DOIWWW ]
  • Rothammer B, Wolf A, Winkler A, Schulte-Hubbert F, Bartz M, Wartzack S, Miehling J, Marian M, (2023), “Subject-specific tribo-contact conditions in total knee replacements: a simulation framework across scales”. Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol., [ DOIWWW ]
  • Tzanetis P, Fluit R, de Souza K, Robertson S, Koopman B, Verdonschot N, (2023), “Pre-Planning the Surgical Target for Optimal Implant Positioning in Robotic-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty”. Bioengineering, vol. 10, pp. 543. [ DOIWWW ]
  • Koo YJ, Jung Y, Seon JK, Koo S (2020), “Anatomical ACL Reconstruction can Restore the Natural Knee Kinematics than Isometric ACL Reconstruction During the Stance Phase of Walking“, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing. [DOI]
  • Dejtiar DL, Dzialo CM, Pedersen PH, Jensen KK, Fleron M, Andersen MS (2019), “Development and evaluation of a subject-specific lower limb model with an 11 DOF natural knee model using MRI and EOS during a quasi-static lunge“, J. Biomech. Eng.. [DOI]
  • Hu J, Xin H, Chen Z, Zhang Q, Peng Y, Jin Z (2019), “The role of menisci in knee contact mechanics and secondary kinematics during human walking“, Clin. Biomech. , vol. 61, pp. 58-63. [DOI]
  • Vanheule V, Delport HP, Andersen MS, Scheys L, Wirix-Speetjens R, Jonkers I, Victor J, Vander Sloten J (2017), “Evaluation of predicted knee function for component malrotation in total knee arthroplasty“, Med. Eng. Phys., vol. 40, pp. 56-64. [DOI]
  • Marra MA, Vanheule V, Fluit R, Koopman BH, Rasmussen J, Verdonschot N, Andersen MS (2015), “A subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling framework to predict in vivo mechanics of total knee arthroplasty“, J. Biomech. Eng., vol. 137, pp. 020904. [DOIWWW]
  • More papers on orthopedics