Solving spine problems

The AnyBody modeling system has been used to solve a range of problems relating to the spine (lumbar, thoracic, and cervical). It has been used to predict sagittal alignment after surgery, to find spine fixation devices’ influence on intervertebral joint forces in terms of loads in adjacent joints, to compare the musculoskeletal impact of different surgical techniques and to answer many other spine related questions.



  • Total disk replacement of lumbar spine
  • Artificial discs placement importance
  • Spinal fixation influence on intervertebral joint force
  • Subject specific spinal loading
  • Spinal loadings for activities of daily living
  • Postoperative global sagittal alignment prediction
  • Effect of stiffness of spinal fusion devices on the adjacent levels
  • Intervertebral disc pressure
  • Distribution of loads after spinal fusion
  • Lumbar loads effect on spinopelvic sagittal alignment
  • Influences of lumbar disc herniation on the kinematics in spine
  • Kyphotic deformity influence on spinal loading
  • Minimal invasive spine surgery
  • Spinal balance impacted by artificial discs
  • Effect of spinal disc herniation on muscles
  • Stability in scoliosis


Examples of input and output for a spine fixation model:


  • Implants CAD files (STL)
  • Implant positioning data
  • Anthropometrics data
  • Motion data


  • Forces in implant
  • Force in adjacent joints
  • Load files for FE analysis
  • Muscle and ligament forces
  • And much more

Contact us to learn more or to discuss how we could solve your problem


Selected papers

  • Shayestehpour H, Tørholm S, Damsgaard M, Lund M, Wong C, Rasmussen J, (2024), “A generic detailed multibody thoracic spine and ribcage model”. Research Square, [ DOIWWW ]
  • Bayoglu R, Witt JP, Chatain GP, Okonkwo DO, Ignasiak D, (2023), “Clinical Validation of a Novel Musculoskeletal Modeling Framework to Predict Postoperative Sagittal Alignment”. Spine , vol. Publish Ahead of Print, [ DOIWWW ]
  • Ignasiak D, Behm P, Mannion AF, Galbusera F, Kleinstück F, Fekete TF, Haschtmann D, Jeszenszky D, Zimmermann L, Richner-Wunderlin S, Vila-Casademunt A, Pellisé F, Obeid I, Pizones J, Sánchez Pérez-Grueso FJ, Karaman MI, Alanay A, Yilgor Ç, Ferguson SJ, Loibl M, ESSG European Spine Study Group, (2022), “Association between sagittal alignment and loads at the adjacent segment in the fused spine: a combined clinical and musculoskeletal modeling study of 205 patients with adult spinal deformity”. Eur. Spine J., [ DOIWWW ]
  • Rasmussen J, Iversen K, Engelund BK, Rasmussen S, (2021), “Biomechanical Evaluation of the Effect of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Compared with Traditional Approaches in Lifting Tasks”. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, [ DOI ]
  • Ignasiak D , “A novel method for prediction of postoperative global sagittal alignment based on full-body musculoskeletal modeling and posture optimization“, J. Biomech., pp. 109324. [DOI]
  • Ignasiak D, Peteler T, Fekete TF, Haschtmann D, Ferguson SJ (2018), “The influence of spinal fusion length on proximal junction biomechanics: a parametric computational study“, Eur. Spine J., vol. 27, pp. 2262-2271. [DOI]
  • Kuai S, Guan X, Liu W, Ji R, Xiong J, Wang D, Zhou W (2019), “Prediction of the Spinal Musculoskeletal Loadings during Level Walking and Stair Climbing after Two Types of Simulated Interventions in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation“, J. Healthc. Eng., vol. 2019, pp. 6406813. [DOI]
  • Zander T, Dreischarf M, Schmidt H, Bergmann G, Rohlmann A (2015), “Spinal loads as influenced by external loads: a combined in vivo and in silico investigation“, J. Biomech., vol. 48, pp. 578-584. [DOI]
  • More papers on orthopedics