Risk factors and lifting hazards in heavy material handling

Manual material handling is a common task in a wide variety of industries and is often identified as an occupational risk factor contributing to the development of musculoskeletal disorders.

The AnyBody Modeling System allows you to gain insight to the internal parameters of the human body (e.g., individual muscle forces, joint reaction forces and moments) to assess and mitigate the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders by improving your understanding of the dynamic loading of the involved joints during manual material handling.


  • Static, quasi-static and dynamic analyses of manual lifting tasks
  • Musculoskeletal injury risk factor assessment in work tasks (e.g., manual material handling)
  • Enhancement of conventional ergonomic assessment standards with biomechanical parameters as muscle activity and forces, joint reaction forces and metabolism
  • Biomechanical parameters to estimate physical fatigue from the perspectives of external loads and working postures
  • Body load analysis (e.g., spinal loading, knee loading etc.)

Contact us to learn more or to discuss how we could solve your problem

Selected papers

  • Skals SL (2021), “Musculoskeletal modelling of manual material handling in the supermarket sector”, Ph.D. Thesis, Aalborg University, Denmark.
  • Skals S, Bláfoss R, de Zee M, Andersen LL, Andersen MS (2021), “Effects of load mass and position on the dynamic loading of the knees, shoulders and lumbar spine during lifting: a musculoskeletal modelling approach”, Appl. Ergon., vol. 96, pp. 103491. [DOIWWW]
  • Ghezelbash F, Shirazi-Adl A, Plamondon A, Arjmand N (2020), “Comparison of different lifting analysis tools in estimating lower spinal loads – Evaluation of NIOSH criterion”, J. Biomech., vol. 112, pp. 110024. [DOI]
  • Larsen FG, Svenningsen FP, Andersen MS, de Zee M, Skals S (2020), “Estimation of Spinal Loading During Manual Materials Handling Using Inertial Motion Capture”, Ann. Biomed. Eng., vol. 48, pp. 805-821. [DOI]
  • Moore CW (2019), “Development of a Task Analysis Tool to Estimate Shoulder Strain During a Lifting Task”, Ph.D. Thesis, West Virginia University. [DOIWWW]
  • Andrzej B, Anna S, Robert M, Miłosz C, Piotr W, Jacek J (2019), “Analysis of Skeletal Muscle System Loads for the Most Optimal Positions During Lifting in Different Load Distances”, In: Biomechanics in Medicine and Biology, pp. 221-230. [DOI]
  • Li X, Komeili A, Gül M, El-Rich M (2017), “A framework for evaluating muscle activity during repetitive manual material handling in construction manufacturing”, Autom. Constr., vol. 79, pp. 39-48. [DOIWWW]
  • Abdul Majid NA, Mohamaddan S, Omiya T, Notomi M (2016), “Musculoskeletal model of awkward carrying postures”, Cogent Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 1256073. [DOIWWW]
  • More ergonomics publications